Hyperkeratosis Corns and Calluses: the appearance of a skin which has become toughened as a result of continuous friction, irritation, or continuous application of pressure. In a situation where the friction, irritation or pressure has become too excessive, then blisters will form other than calluses. In most cases, calluses appear at the sole of the foot and they result from walking and they do not often pose any harmful threat however in some extreme cases, they may likely result in infections and ulcerations of the skin. A corn on the other hand can be referred to as a special shape callus of a dead skin. A corn often form on smooth and hairless skin surfaces, and especially between toes and fingers.
Corns and calluses do not form unnecessarily, they often form out of the need to protect and underlying skin area from pressure, injury and friction, though they are generally not painful , however they may become sore as they grow and expand. It has also been found out that Corns and calluses affect women more than men, it is also common among individuals who wear tight fitting shoes as well as those who sweat too much under their feet, it is also common among people who usually stand for several hours everyday and those who suffer from some common foot problems such as hammer toes.
Both corns and calluses can be regarded as a keratosis or hyperkeratosis disorder. Corns appear as a result of the thickening of the keratin layer of the epidermis structure of the skin, while a corn can be referred to as the hard or soft Hyperkeratosis of the sole of the foot usually occurring as a result of secondary pressure or continuous friction exerted on the region. The development of the corn is most found on the top and side of the toe, hard corns are not as prominent as soft ones , however they tend to appear in areas where the skin is hard and firm. Hard corns form mostly in the bony areas of the foot.
The commonest symptoms of Corns and calluses are; Flaky and waxy dry skin, paining sensations under the feet, tenderness under the skin, thickness and slight discolouration of the affected area, and a raised hardened bump. Rehydration creams, Foaming wedges, trimming and cutting techniques, salicylic acids, antibiotics and surgical removal of affected areas are some of the commonest ways of dealing with corns and calluses.